Charles, Emperor, King of Lotharingia

Male 823 - 877  (54 years)


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  • Name Charles , Emperor, King of Lotharingia 
    Suffix Emperor, King of Lotharingia 
    Born 13 Jun 823  Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 6 Oct 877 
    Notes 
    • “CHARLES, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824". Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife. His father invested Charles as dux in Alemania, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest brother Lothaire to Italy. This triggered the revolt of his older half-brothers in Mar 830, when they captured their father at Compiègne and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817. His father installed Charles as King of Aquitaine in Sep 832, having deprived Charles's half-brother Pepin. His father restored Aquitaine to Pepin 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise. His father accorded Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the Assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire (as well as a royal crown) in 838, and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Bretagne, Aquitaine, Gascogne and Septimanie at the Assembly of Worms 28 May 839. On the death of his father, he became King of the Franks of the West. His brother Emperor Lothaire sought to deprive him of his lands. Charles allied himself with his half-brother Ludwig and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye 25 Jun 841. Under the division of imperial territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he bececame CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks. King of Aquitaine in 848, when he deposed his nephew Pepin II. In 865, Charles agreed with Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks the future division of the territories of Lothairre II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia and proclaimed himself CHARLES King of Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights. A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Charles received the Meuse valley, Lyonnais, Viennois and Vivarais, declaring himself king of Lotharingia in 869. He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II at Rome 25 Dec 875 by Pope John VIII, and elected king of Italy at Pavia in 876. The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death of "Karolus imperator Prid Non Oct 877". The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Oct" of "Karolus Calvus rex Francorum".
      m firstly (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) ERMENTRUDIS, daughter of EUDES Comte [d’Orléans] & his wife Engeltrudis (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales Bertiniani record the mmarriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium". Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles. She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons. After she waas separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery. The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli". The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina".
      m secondly (12 Oct 869, confirmed Aix-la-Chapelle 22 Jan 870) RICHILDIS, daughter of comte BUVIN & his wife --- d'Arles (-[30 Jan] [910 or after]). The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage "869 VII Id Oct" of "sororem…Bosonis…Richildem" and King Charles II. She was crowned empress at Tortona in Lombardy by Pope John VIII in 877. “Richildis quondam regina” donated property, among which “in pago Gerbercinse in Langeii villa”, to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 910. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Kal Feb" of "RICHILDIS".
      Emperor Charles II & his first wife had nine children:
      1. JUDITH ([844]-after 870). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina", specifying that she married "Balduinus comes". Thhe Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head. Her first husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice in the kingdom of Wessex. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband. Asser records that when King Æthelwulf was dead, his son Æthelbald married Judith daughter of Charles king of the Franks "contrary to God's prohibition and the dignity of a Christian, contrary also to the custom of all the pagans…and drew down much infamy upon himself". The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi AnglAnglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium". m firstly (Verberie-sur-Oise, near Senlis 1 Oct 856) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, son of ECGBERT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/800]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester). m secondly (858) ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (-20 Dec 860, bur Sherborne). m thirdly (Auxerre 13 Dec 862) BAUDOUIN I Count of Flanders, son of ODACRE [Audacer/Odoscer] Graf van Harlebeek & his wife --- ([837/840]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer).
      2. LOUIS (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina". He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks.
      3.CHARLES ([847/48]-near Buzançais, Indre 29 Sep 866, bur Bourges, église de Saint-Sulpice). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi rregina". Elected King of Aquitaine in Oct 855 at Limoges, and crowned. His residence was at Bourges. He married against the wishes of his father, and was deprived of his titles in 863. He was restored as king of Aquitaine in 865. The Annaleles Bertiniani record the death "866 III Kal Oct in villa secus Bosentiacas" of "Karoli filius Karolus et Aquitanorum rex" two years after suffering severe brain injuries, and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Sulpitii apud Biturigum". The Chronicico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866. m (862, annulled 863) as her second husband, ---, widow of HUMBERT Comte [de Bourges], daughter of ---. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Karolus rex Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius" and "relictam Humberti comitis", on the advice of "Stephani" against the will of his father.
      4.CARLOMAN (-[877/78]). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina". "Carlomannum" is named son of King Charles by Folcuin, who sspecifies that his father installed him as abbot "Laubiensi". The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus rex Karlommanum filium suum" was tonsured in 854. Abbé de Saint-Médard at Soissons 860. He conspired against his father, was imprisoned at Senlis and deprived of his abbeys in 870. He escaped to Belgium. He was rejected by the church by judgment of the bishops meeting at Senlis in 873. His father had him blinded and imprisoned at the monastery of Corbie in 873. He fled to Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. He was sent to Luxembourg where he became Abbot of Echternach in 874.
      5. LOTHAIRE (-14 Dec 865). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina". He was lame from birth. The Annales Bertiniani record thhat "Karlus rex filium Lotharium claudum" became a monk "in monasterio Sancti Iohannis" in 861[252]. He became a monk at the abbey of Moutier Saint-Jean in 861. Abbé de Saint-Germain at Auxerre. The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866. One necrology of Saint-Germain d´Auxerre records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "domni Lotharii abbatis".
      6. HILDEGARDIS. The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina".
      7. ERMENTRUDIS (-after 11 Jul 877). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina". The Historia Monasterii Hasnonensis names "Ermentrudis imperatrix et regina cum filia Ermendtrude". Abbess of Hasnon near Douai 11 Jul 877.
      8. GISELA. The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina".
      9. [ROTRUDIS ([850]-). Settipani names Rotrudis as the daughter of King Charles II but appears to base this on her being named as such in the Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis[260], but this does not appear to be the case. Flodoard names "Rotrudi" when recording her election as abbess of "monasterii Sanctæ Crucis et Sanctæ Radegundis" but does not give her parentage. Abbess of Sainte-Radégonde at Poitiers 868-870.]
      Emperor Charles II & his second wife had five children:
      10. ROTHILDIS ([871]-22 Mar 929). Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks confirmed donations of property "in comitatu quoque Cœnomannico" made by "Hugo comes et mater sua Rothildis", at the request of "genitrix nostra Adeleidis et…comees Hugo consanguineus, necnon et…comes Ecfridus" by charter dated 1 Nov 900. The charter dated 929 subscribed by "Hugonis comitis filii Rotgerii comitis" suggests that Rothildis must have been the wife of Roger. Flodoard names "Rothildis, amitæ suæ [regis Karoli], socrus autem Hugonis" when recording that the king deprived her of "abbatiam…Golam" [Chelles] in favour of his favourite Haganon, the context dictating that "Hugonis" was "Hugo filius Rotberti". As the paternal aunt of King Charles III, chronology determines that she must have been the daughter of her father's second marriage, although no source has so far been identified which states this to be the case. She acquired the monasteries of Chelles, and Notre-Dame aand Saint-Jean at Laon. She retreated to Chelles in 922 but was deprived of the monastery by her nephew Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in favour of his favourite Haganon, an event which led to the rebellion of Robert Marquis een Neustrie who was the father of Rothilde's son-in-law (Hugues, later "le Grand" Duc des Francs). Her death is dated to late 928/early 929 as Flodoard names "Rothildis…nuper defunctæ" when recording that "Heribertus et Hugo comites" (specifying that "Hugo" was "gener ipsius Rothildis") attacked "Bosonem Rodulfi regis frater" in 929 over the property of Rothilde. This is also the only source so far identified from which her marriage is deduced. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli". The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa". These entries could refer alternativeely to Rothildis, daughter of Emperor Charlemagne, but it is more likely that the former entry would have referred to her father as "imperator" if that was the case. m ([890]) ROTGER [Roger] Comte, nephew of [HUGUES Comte de Bourges], son of --- (-before I Nov 900). Comte du Maine 897.
      11. DROGO ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders). The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo". Twin with Pepin.
      12. PEPIN ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders). The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo". Twin with Drogo.
      13. son (23 Mar 875-soon after). The Annales Bertiniani record that in 875 "Richildis uxor eius [=Karoli]" gave birth to a child "noctu ante quartam feriam paschæ" which died immediately after being baptised.
      14. CHARLES (10 Oct 876-877 before 7 Apr, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales Bertiniani record the death in early 877 of "filius eius [=Karoli]…Karolus" and his burial at Saint-Denis.”


      From Wikipedia:
      “ Charles the Bald (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Empire) (French: Charles le Chauve, German: Karl der Kahle; 13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and King of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith.
      He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt, when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious baade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.
      The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of FoFontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25, 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Louiuis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as the East Francia and later Germany. Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia.
      The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855, were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848)8), at Meerssen (851), and at Attigny (854). In 858, Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy. He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.
      Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were successsful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchasse their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864, made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885–886.
      In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29. Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia. After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876), Charles in his turn attemmpted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8, 876. In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy, Boso, and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain, on 6 October 877.
      According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.
      Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis. Charles was a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims.
      It has been suggested that Charles was not in fact bald, but that his epithet was applied ironically - that, in fact, he was extremely hairy. In support of this idea is the fact that none of his enemies commented on what would be an easy target. However, none of the voluble members of his court comments on his being hairy; and the Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanell dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Caluus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald".
      Charles married Ermentrude, daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans, in 842. She died in 869. In 870, Charles married Richilde of Provence, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine, but none of the children he had with her played a part of any importance.
      With Ermentrude:
      -Judith (844–870), married firstly with Ethelwulf of Wessex, secondly with Ethelbald of Wessex (her stepson) and thirdly with Baldwin I of Flanders
      -Louis the Stammerer (846–879)
      -Charles the Child (847–866)
      -Lothar (848–865), monk in 861, became Abbot of Saint-Germain
      -Carloman (849–876)
      -Rotrud (852–912), a nun, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
      -Ermentrud (854–877), a nun, Abbess of Hasnon
      -Hildegard (born 856, died young)
      -Gisela (857–874)
      With Richilde:
      -Rothild (871–929), married firstly with Hugues, Count of Bourges and secondly with Roger, Count of Maine
      -Drogo (872–873)
      -Pippin (873–874)
      a son (born and died 875)
      -Charles (876–877)”««s87»» [1]
    Person ID I12668  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 5 Feb 2017 

    Father Louis or Hludowic I “the Pious”, Emperor and King of the Aquitainians,   b. 778,   d. 20 Jun 840  (Age 62 years) 
    Mother Judith, of Bavaria, Queen Consort of the Franks,   b. 805,   d. 843  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 819  Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F4372  Group Sheet

    Family 1 Ermentrudis or Ermentrude, Queen of the Franks,   b. 27 Sep 823,   d. 6 Oct 869  (Age 46 years) 
    Married 842 
    Children 
    +1. Judith, of Flanders,   b. Oct 844,   d. 870  (Age ~ 25 years)
    +2. Louis II “The Stammerer”, King of the West Franks, King of Aquitaine
     3. Charles “The Child”, King of Aquitaine
     4. Carloman
     5. Lothaire or Lothat, Abbot of Saint-Germain,   d. 14 Dec 865
     6. Hildegard
     7. Ermentrud, Abbess of Hasnon
     8. Gisela
     9. Rotrud, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
    Last Modified 5 Feb 2017 
    Family ID F4369  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Richildis or Richilde, of Provence Queen and Empress of the West Franks,   b. Abt 845,   d. 2 Jun 910  (Age ~ 65 years) 
    Children 
     1. Rothildis,   b. Abt 871,   d. 22 Mar 929  (Age ~ 58 years)
     2. Drogo
     3. Pepin
     4. ?
     5. Charles
    Last Modified 5 Feb 2017 
    Family ID F4371  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 13 Jun 823 - Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany Link to Google Earth
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  • Sources 
    1. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees..