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Edward “The Exile”

Male 1016 - 1057  (41 years)

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  • Name Edward “The Exile”  
    Born 1016 
    Gender Male 
    Died Feb 1057 
    • “EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man". Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns". Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court". According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia". His life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay. Humphrey infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England", according to Florence of Worcester tto be groomed to succeed to the English throne. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival" before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place. m (Kiev [1040/45]) AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources, but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for many years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars" can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici", in a passage which Humphrey speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman" and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"). Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recountting the ancestry of Henry II King of England. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungariann] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]) she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum". The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem" the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1507], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040, when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043, when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absenence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian oorigin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seeseemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068. According to Weir, in old age, possibly after the death of her daughter Queen Margaret, she became a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Edward & his wife had three children:
      a) MARGARET ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][1515], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin, as discussed above. Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldests son. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle. She was caanonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov. m (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) as his second wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).
      b) CHRISTINA ([in Hungary] [1050/53]-after 1090). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus…germana Christina" entered Romsey abbey as a nun in [1086]. Eadmer of Canterbury (writing [1093]-[1122]) comments about the religious life of Christina and her strict control in the 1090s over her niece Edith, who later married to Henry I King of England.
      c) EDGAR ætheling ([1053/55]-after 1126). After King Harold II's defeat at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, Ealdred Archbishop of York, Earls Edwin and Morcar, and the citizens of London supported Edgar as successor to King Harold II. However, his support quickly collapsed and he swore allegiance to King William "the Conqueror" at Berkhamsted, before the latter made his way to London. Florence of Worcester records that "clitonem Edgarum" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edgar left England with his mother and sisters in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068. He marched on York in 1069. He left for Flanders in exile, but returned to Scotland 8 Jul 1074. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" left Scotland for England in [1073], and went to Normandy where he made peace with King William. Florence of Worcester records that "clito Eadgarus" went to Apulia with 200 knights in [1086]. Florence of Worcester records that Edgar lived in Scotland after being expelled from Normandy by King William I, but was invited back to England by Robert Comte de Mortain in 1091 in order to negotiate peace between Malcolm King of Scotland and King William II after King Malcolm invaded Northumberland. He led the army sent by King William II to Scotland in 1097 to expel King Duncan II and install his nephew Edgar as king. "…Edgari aederling…" subscribed the charter dated 30 Aug 1095 under which "Edgarus fililius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi". Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo". Forces under his command captured Latakia in Mar 1098 before handing it to Robert III Duke of Normandy, according to Orderic Vitalis who calls Edgar "indolent". He supported Robebert Duke of Normandy in his fight with his brother Henry I King of England in 1106, and was taken prisoner by the king at the battle of Tinchebrai but released soon after. The primary source which records that he was still alive in 1126 has not yet been identified.”««s87»» [1]
    Person ID I11908  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2019 

    Father Edmund “Ironside”, King of England,   b. Abt 990,   d. 30 Nov 1016  (Age ~ 26 years) 
    Mother Ældgyth or Edith,   b. 990,   d. 1017  (Age 27 years) 
    Family ID F4145  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Agatha 
    +1. Saint Margaret, of Scotland,   b. 1046/53, Hungary Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Nov 1093  (Age 40 years)
     2. Cristina
     3. Edgar “The Outlaw” ÆTHELING
    Last Modified 19 Aug 2019 
    Family ID F4144  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Sources 
    1. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees.