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Henry III, King of England

Male 1207 - 1272  (65 years)

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  • Name Henry III  
    Suffix King of England 
    Born 1 Oct 1207  Winchester Castle, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 16 Nov 1272  Palace of Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • “HENRY, son of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulême (Winchester Castle 1 Oct 1207-Palace of Westminster 16 Nov 1272, bur Westminster Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die S Remigii" [1207] of "filium…Henricus" to "regina Isabel"[477]. He succeeded his father 28 Oct 1216 as HENRY III King of England. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the coronation "apud Bristowe…V Kal Nov" [1216] of King Henry[478]. Crowowned Gloucester Cathedral 28 Oct 1216[479], and again Westminster Abbey 17 May 1220. The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the coronation in 1220 "die Pentecostem…XVI Kal Jun" of King Henry at Westminster[480]. He formally renounced ththe duchy of Normandy under the Treaty of Paris Dec 1259. King Henry planned grandiose schemes to increase England's influence in Europe, through installing his younger son as king of Sicily and with his brother as king of Germany, but failed in their successful implementation. His reign was bedevilled by domestic difficulties with the English barons, triggered partly by his inability to control his wife's relations whose establishment in England he encouraged. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "die S Eadmundi Cantuar. archiepiscopi" 16 Nov 1272 of King Henry III and his burial at Westminster[481].
      [482]Betrothed (before Mar 1227) to YOLANDE de Bretagne, daughter of PIERRE Duke of Brittany & his first wife Alix de Thouars Dss of Brittany (in Brittany end 1218-château de Bouteville 10 Oct 1272, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, église abbatiale de Notre Dame). The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified.
      m (Canterbury Cathedral 14 Jan 1236) ELEONORE de Provence, daughter of RAYMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence & his wife Béatrice de Savoie (Aix-en-Provence [1223]-Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 24/25 Jun 1291, bur Amesbury Abbey). The Continuator oof Florence of Worcester records the marriage "Id Jan" [1236] in Canterbury of King Henry III and "Alienoram filiam comitis Proventiæ" and their joint coronation in London "XIII Kal Feb"[483]. Her marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who also states her parentage, and her coronation as Queen Consort 19/20 Jan 1236 at Westminster Abbey[484]. Her marriage signalled the establishment of close ties between the English court and the house of Savoy, the foreign immigrants becoming increasingly unpopular in England and contributing to the difficulties experienced by King Henry III with his barons. She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 7 Jul 1284. The Annales Londonienses record the death "in crastino Sancti Johannis Baptistæ" in 1291 of "Elianora mater regis Edwardi" and her burial "apud Ambresbury in festo nativitate beatæ Virginis"[485].
      King Henry III & his wife had five children:
      1. EDWARD (Palace of Westminster 17 Jun 1239-Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland 8 Jul 1307, bur Westminster Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "XIV Kal Jul" [1239] of "Edwardum filium suum primogenitum" to "Alienor regina Angliæ"[486]. His birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[487]. He succeeded his father in 1272 as EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England.
      - see below.
      2. MARGARET (1 Oct 1240-Cupar Castle, Fife 26/27 Feb 1275, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). The Annales Londonienses record the birth "in die Sancti Leodegarii" in 1240 of "filiam…Margareta" to "regina Angliæ"[488]. The Annals of Tewkkesbury record the birth “Kal Oct” in 1240 of “regi Angliæ filia…Matilda”[489]. Her birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[490]. Matthew of Paris also records her marriage, as well as the splendour and extravagance of the marriage banquets[491]1]. The Annals of Burton record the marriage “die Natalis Domini apud Eboracum” in 1251 of “rex Scotiæ, filius regis Alexandri, puer parvulus ix annorum” and “Margaretam filiam regis Henrici Angliæ…eiusdem ætatis”[492]. The Annals of Tewkesburury record the marriage “apud Eboracum…circa festum beati Stephani” in 1251 of “dominus rex…filiam suam primogenitam” and “regi Scotiæ”[493]. The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "apud Eboracum" in 1252 of "Henricus rex Margaretam filiam suam" and "regi Scotiæ"[494]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britanniæ, filiæ Henrici"[495]. m (York Minster 26 Dec 1251491) as his first wife, ALEXANDER III “the Glorious” King of Scotland, son of ALEXANDER II King of Scotland & his second wife Marie de Coucy (Roxburgh 4 Sep 1241-between Burntisland and Kinghorn, Fife 16 or 19 Mar 1286, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).
      3. BEATRIX (Bordeaux 25 Jun 1242-London 24 Mar 1275, maybe bur Reading Abbey, probably transferred to Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London). The Annales Londonienses record the birth "apud Burdegalam" in 1242 of "filiam…Beatrice" to "regina Alienora"[496]. Her birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[497]. Her first betrothal was arranged to confirm Duke Ludwig's agreement to support the candidature of Richard Earl of Cornwall as king of Germany, the dowry being 12,000 marks[498]. Although the source does not say which of the king's daughters was Duke Ludwig's betrothed, it could only have been Beatrix as her older sister Margaret was already married and her younger sister Katherine was an infant, and also mute. The Annales Londonienses record the marriage in 1260 of "Johannes filius comitis Britanniæ" and "Beatricem filiam regis Angliæ"[499]. The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage “apud Westmonasterium” in 1259 of “Johannem filium et hæredum comitis Britanniæ” and “Beatriciam filiam regis”[500]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britanniæ, filiæ Henrici"[501]. Betrothed (Bacharach 26 Nov 1256) to LUDWIG II "der Strenge" Duke of Bavaria, son of OTTO II "dem Erlauchten" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Agnes von Braunschweig (Heidelberg 13 Apr 1229-Heidelberg 2 Feb 1294, bur Kloster Fürstenfeld). m (contract 13 Oct 1260, église de l'Abbaye royalale de Saint Denis Nov 1260, Westminster Abbey [25 Dec] 1260) JEAN de Bretagne [Dreux-Capet] Earl of Richmond, son of JEAN I Duke of Brittany & his wife Blanche de Champagne Infanta de Navarra (4 Jan 1239-Lyon 16 Nov 1305, bur Ploërmel, Morbihan, église Notre Dame du couvent des Carmes). Accompanied King Louis IX on the Second Crusade. He succeeded his father in 1286 as JEAN II Duke of Brittany.
      4. EDMUND “Crouchback/Gibbosus” (London 16 Jan 1245-Bayonne 5 Jun 1296, bur Westminster Abbey). He is named as son of King Henry III by Matthew of Paris in 1254[502]. Created Earl of Leicester 26 Oct 1265, in succession to Simon de Montfort, and Earl of Lancaster 30 Jun 1267.
      - see below, Part C. EARLS of LANCASTER.
      5. KATHERINE (Palace of Westminster 25 Nov 1253-Windsor Castle 3 May 1257, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annales Londonienses record the birth in 1253 of "Katerina filia regis Henrici"[503]. The Annals of Worcester record the birth “nocte Ceciliæ” in 1253 of “regina…filiam…Katerina”[504]. Her birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[505]. Her death is also recorded by Matthew of Paris, who specifies that she was "muta et inutilis sed facie pulcherrima"[506].

      From Wikipedia:
      “Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. Mediaeval English monarchs did not use numbers after their names, and his contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Ethelred the Unready. Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor.
      He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal, but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta[citation needed] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine.
      Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle. He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême. After his father's death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England in 1066. The coronation was a simple affair, attended by only a handful of noblemen and three bishops. None of his father's executors was present, and in the absence of a crown a simple golden band was placed on the young boy's head, not by the Archbishop of Canterbury (who was at this time supporting Prince Louis of France, the newly-proclaimed king of England) but rather by the Bishop of Gloucester. In 1220, a second coronation was ordered by Pope Honorius III who did not consider that the first had been carried out in accordance with church rites. This occurred on 17 May 1220 in Westminster Abbey.[1]
      Under John's rule, the barons had supported an invasion by Prince Louis because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta, which they proceeded to do during Henry’s minority. Magna Carta was reissued in 1217 as a sign of goodwill to the barons and the country was ruled by regents until 1227.
      As Henry reached maturity he was keen to restore royal authority, looking towards the autocratic model of the French monarchy[citation needed]. Henry married Eleanor of Provence and he promoted many of his French relatives to higher positions of power and wealth. For instance, one Poitevin, Peter des Riveaux, held the offices of Treasurer of the Household, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe, Lord Privy Seal, and the sheriffdoms of twenty-one English counties simultaneously. Henry's tendency to govern for long periods with no publicly-appointed ministers who could be held accountable for their actions and decisions did not make matters any easier. Many English barons came to see his method of governing as foreign.
      Henry was much taken with the cult of the Anglo-Saxon saint king Edward the Confessor who had been canonised in 1161. Told that St Edward dressed austerely, Henry took to doing the same and wearing only the simplest of robes. He had a mural of tthe saint painted in his bedchamber for inspiration before and after sleep and even named his eldest son Edward. Henry designated Westminster, where St Edward had founded the abbey, as the fixed seat of power in England and Westminster Hall dululy became the greatest ceremonial space of the kingdom, where the council of nobles also met. Henry appointed French architects from Rheims to renovate Westminster Abbey in the Gothic style. Work began, at great expense, in 1245. The centrepiece of Henry's renovated abbey was to be a shrine to Edward the Confessor. It was finished in 1269 and the saint's relics were then installed.
      Henry was known for his anti-Jewish decrees, such as a decree compelling them to wear a special "badge of shame" in the form of the Two Tablets. Henry was extremely pious and his journeys were often delayed by his insistence on hearing Mass several times a day. He took so long to arrive on a visit to the French court that his brother-in-law, King Louis IX of France, banned priests from Henry's route. On one occasion, as related by Roger of Wendover, when King Henry met with papal prelates, he said, "If (the prelates) knew how much I, in my reverence of God, am afraid of them and how unwilling I am to offend them, they would trample on me as on an old and worn-out shoe."
      Henry's advancement of foreign favourites, notably his wife's Savoyard uncles and his own Lusignan half-siblings, was unpopular with his subjects and barons. He was also extravagant and avaricious; when his first child, Prince Edward, was born, Henry demanded that Londoners bring him rich gifts to celebrate. He even sent back gifts that did not please him. Matthew Paris reports that some said, "God gave us this child, but the king sells him to us."
      In 1244, when the Scots threatened to invade England, King Henry III visited York Castle and ordered it rebuilt in stone. The work commenced in 1245, and took some 20 to 25 years to complete. The builders crowned the existing moat with a stone keep, known as the King's Tower.
      Henry's reign came to be marked by civil strife as the English barons, led by Simon de Montfort, demanded more say in the running of the kingdom. French-born de Montfort had originally been one of the foreign upstarts so loathed by many as Henryy's foreign councillors; after he married Henry’s sister Eleanor, without consulting Henry, a feud developed between the two. Their relationship reached a crisis in the 1250s when de Montfort was brought up on spurious charges for actions he took as lieutenant of Gascony, the last remaining Plantagenet land across the English Channel. He was acquitted by the Peers of the realm, much to the King's displeasure.
      Henry also became embroiled in funding a war in Sicily on behalf of the Pope in return for a title for his second son Edmund, a state of affairs that made many barons fearful that Henry was following in the footsteps of his father, King John, annd needed to be kept in check, too. De Montfort became leader of those who wanted to reassert Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions oof Oxford, which effectively abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons to deal with the business of government and providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Henry was forced to take part in the swearing of a collective oath to the Provisions of Oxford.
      In the following years, those supporting de Montfort and those supporting the king grew more and more polarised. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1262 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. The Royalists were led by Prince Edward, Henry's eldest son. Civil war, known as the Second Barons' War, followed.
      The charismatic de Montfort and his forces had captured most of southeastern England by 1263, and at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner by de Montfort's army. While Henry was reduced to being a figurehead king, de Montfort broadened representation to include each county of England and many important towns—that is, to groups beyond the nobility. Henry and Edward continued under house arrest. The short period that followed was the closest England was to come to complete abolition of the monarchy until the Commonwealth period of 1649–1660 and many of the barons who had initially supported de Montfort began to suspect that he had gone too far with his reforming zeal.
      But only fifteen months later Prince Edward had escaped captivity (having been freed by his cousin Roger Mortimer) to lead the royalists into battle again and he turned the tables on de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Following this victory savage retribution was exacted on the rebels.
      Henry's reign ended when he died in 1272, after which he was succeeded by his son, Edward I. His body was laid, temporarily, in the tomb of Edward the Confessor while his own sarcophagus was constructed in Westminster Abbey.
      Married on 14 January 1236, Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, to Eleanor of Provence, with at least five children born:
      Edward I (b. 17 January 1239 - d. 8 July 1307)
      Margaret (b. 29 September 1240 - d. 26 February 1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland
      Beatrice (b. 25 June 1242 - d. 24 March 1275), married to John II, Duke of Brittany
      Edmund (16 January 1245 - d. 5 June 1296)
      Katharine (b. 25 November 1253 - d. 3 May 1257), deafness was discovered at age 2. [1]
      There is reason to doubt the existence of several attributed children of Henry and Eleanor.
      Richard (b. after 1247 - d. before 1256),
      John (b. after 1250 - d. before 1256), and
      Henry (b. after 1253 - d. young)
      Are known only from a 14th century addition made to a manuscript of Flores historiarum, and are nowhere contemporaneously recorded.
      William (b. and d. ca. 1258) is an error for the nephew of Henry's half-brother, William de Valence.
      Another daughter, Matilda, is found only in the Hayles abbey chronicle, alongside such other fictitious children as a son named William for King John, and a bastard son named John for King Edward I. Matilda's existence is doubtful, at best. For further details, see Margaret Howell, The Children of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence (1992).
      Personal detailes: His Royal Motto was qui non dat quod habet non accipit ille quod optat (He who does not give what he has, does not receive what he wants). His favorite wine was made with the Loire Valley red wine grape Pineau d'Aunis which Henry first introduced to England in the thirteenth century. He built a Royal Palace in the town of Cippenham, Slough, Berkshire named "Cippenham Moat". In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, which contributed to the emergence of the Hanseatic League.”«s87» [1]
    Person ID I11796  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 12 Dec 2020 

    Father John, King of England,   b. 24 Dec 1167, Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Lincolnshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 48 years) 
    Mother Isabel or Isabella, of Angoulême 
    Married 24 Aug 1200 
    Family ID F4095  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Eleanor, de Provence,   b. Abt 1223,   d. Jun 1291  (Age ~ 68 years) 
    Married 14 Jan 1236  Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    +1. Edward I “Longshanks”, King of England,   b. 17 Jun 1239, Westminster Palace, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Jul 1307, Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 68 years)
     2. Margaret, of England,   b. 1240,   d. 1275  (Age 35 years)
     3. Beatrice, of England
     4. Edmund “Crouchback”, 1st Earl of Lancaaster,   b. 1245,   d. 1296  (Age 51 years)
     5. Katherine,   b. 25 Nov 1253,   d. 3 May 1257  (Age 3 years)
    Last Modified 12 Dec 2020 
    Family ID F4094  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1 Oct 1207 - Winchester Castle, Winchester, Hampshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 14 Jan 1236 - Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 16 Nov 1272 - Palace of Westminster, London, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Sources 
    1. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees.