Edward I “Longshanks”, King of England

Male 1239 - 1307  (68 years)


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  • Name Edward I “Longshanks” , King of England 
    Suffix King of England 
    Born 17 Jun 1239  Westminster Palace, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 7 Jul 1307  Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Westminster Abbey, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • “EDWARD, son of HENRY III King of England & his wife Eléonore de Provence (Palace of Westminster 17 Jun 1239-Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland 8 Jul 1307, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth “XIV Kal Jul…Londoniæ apud Westmonasterium” of “filius…Eadwardus” to “regi Henrico Angliæ filio regis Johannis…de regina sua Alienora filia comitis de Provencia”. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "XIV Kal Jul" [1239] of "Edwardum filium suum primogenitum" to "Alienor regina Angliæ". Matthew of Paris records that Edward was installed as Duke of Gascony in 1252, after the territory was subdued by Simon de Montfort. Henry III King of England granted “totam terram Vasconie” to “Eudoardo primogenito filio nostro” by charter dated 8 Jun 1252. He was created Earl of Chester 14 Feb 1254. Taken prisoner with his father at the battle of Lewes 14 May 1264 by the rebel barons under Simon de Montfort, he managed to escape 26 May. As a means of making peace, he delivered the earldom of Chester to Simon de Montfort 24 Dec 1264, though it was restored to Edward after the battle of Evesham 4 Aug 1265. He left England in summer 1270 intending to join Louis IX King of France in Tunnisia. On learning of the king's death after arriving in Africa, Edward wintered in Sicily with King Charles and the following spring sailed for Palestine, landing at Acre 9 May 1271, but he had insufficient resources to make any headway againsst the Mameluk Sultan Baibars and signed a peace agreement with the Sultan at Caesarea 22 May 1272. An attempt was made on his life 16 Jun 1272 when an Assassin stabbed him with a poisoned dagger, the after effects of which left Edward seriously ill for several months, and left Acre for England 22 Sep 1272. He succeeded his father in 1272 as EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England, when he was in Sicily returning from the Crusade. He arrived back in England in Aug 1274, and was crowned 19 Aug 1274 at Westminster Abbey. A strong king, he increased the power of the crown during his reign at the expense of the barons, probably setting the scene for the problems faced by his weaker son Edward II.
      Betrothed (1247) to [MARIE] de Brabant, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Staufen (-beheaded Donauwörth 1256, bur Donauwörth Heiliges Kreuz Stift). The betrothal of one of the daughters of Duke Henri II to Edward of England is recorded by Matthew Paris. It is not certain that Marie was the daughter in question. However, she is the most likely candidate as her two older sisters were already married and her younger half-sister was only an infant at the time.
      m firstly (Betrothed 1253, Burgos 18 Oct 1254) Infanta doña LEONOR de Castilla, daughter of don FERNANDO III “el Santo” King of Castile & his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin-Ponthieu (1240-Harby, Nottinghamshire 29 Nov 1290, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "circa translationem beati Edwardi regis apud Boures" in 1254 of "Edwardus filius regis Henrici" and "Alienoram iuvenculam…sororem regis Hispanniæ". This marriage was first proposed in 1253 in connection with settlement of the Spanish claim to Gascony, according to Matthew of Paris who refers to her as "sororem suam uterinani" in reference to "rex Hispaniæ" but does not give her name. She accompanied her husband on crusade 1270/72. Crowned Queen 19 Aug 1274 at Westminster Abbey. She succeeded her mother in 1279 as Ctss de Ponthieu et de Montreuil. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Kal Dec apud Herdeby in comitatu Lincolniensi" of "Alienora regina Angliæ domini regis consors".
      m secondly (treaty Montreuil 19 Jun 1299, Canterbury Cathedral 8 or 9 Sep 1299) MARGUERITE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE III King of France & his second wife Marie de Brabant (1275-Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire 14 Feb 1318, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London). The Annals of Worcester record the marriage “Sep…IV Id…in ecclesia Cantuarensi” in 1299 of “Edwardus rex” and “Margareta soror Philippi Regis Franciæ”.
      Mistress (1): ---. The name of Edward's mistress is not known.
      King Edward I & his first wife had 16 children:
      1. ELEANOR (Windsor Castle [17 Jun] 1264[518] or 1269-Ghent 12 Oct 1297, bur Westminster Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Wyndleshores" of "filiam…Alienoram" to "Alienora uxor domini Eadwardi regis primogeniti". The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "apud Bristoll vigilia S Matthaæi Apostoli" 20 Sep [1293] of "Alienora regis Angliæ flia primogenita" and "domino Henrico comitis de Baroduc". Poull gives no death date for Eleanor, but says that she returned to England after her husband died and that 8 May 1304 her father started negotiations for her marriage with Robert, son of Othon Comte Palatin de Bourgogne & his wife Mathilde Ctss d'Artois. This seems unlikely as Robert de Bourgogne was born in 1300, so was over 30 years younger than Eleanor. m firstly (by proxy Westminster Abbey 15 Aug 1290, not consummated) don ALFONSO III "el Liberal" King of Aragon, son of don PEDRO III "el Grande" King of Aragon & his wife Constanza of Sicily [Hohenstaufen] (Valencia 4 Nov 1265-Barcelona 18 Jun 1291, bur Barcelona Franciscan Monastery). m secondly (Bristol 20 Sep 1293) HENRI III Comte de Bar, son of THIBAUT II Comte de Bar & his second wife Jeanne de Toucy (1259-Naples Sep 1302).
      2. JOAN (Paris or Abbeville, Ponthieu Summer 1265-in France before 7 Sep 1265, bur Westminster Abbey). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      3. JOHN (Windsor Castle or Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire or Winchester 10 Jun or 10 Jul 1266-1-3 Aug 1271, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1271 of "Johannes filius Edwardi primogenitus" and his burial "apud Westmonasterium", stating that he was "in custodia domini regis Alemanniæ" (presumably indicating his paternal uncle Richard Earl of Cornwall). The Annals of Osney record the death “apud Walingeford circa gulam Augusti” in 1271 of “dominus Johannes primogenitus domini Edwardi” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium”.
      4. HENRY (Windsor Castle 13 Jul [1267/68]-Merton, Surrey or Guildford Castle, Surrey 14 Oct 1274, bur Westminster Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the burial at Westminster "XIII Kal Nov" 20 Oct [1274] of "dominus Henricus domini Edwardi filius"[524]. The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the death “circa festum Sancti Calixti Papæ” in 1274 of “Henricus filius regis Edwardi secundo genitus” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium…X Kal Nov”.
      5. ALICE (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire ---- aged 12). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      6. JULIAN [Katherine] (Acre, Palestine 1271-Acre, Palestine 28 May or 5 Sep 1271, bur [Church of the Friars Preachers, Bordeaux). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      7. JOAN "of Acre" (Acre, Palestine Spring 1272-Clare Manor, Suffolk 23 Apr 1307, bur 26 Apr 1307 Priory Church of the Austin Friars, Clare, Suffolk). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth at Acre in [1272] of "filiam…Johannam" to "Alienor uxor domini Eadwardi". The Annales Hospitalis Argentinenses record that "comes Hartmannus [filius reginæ uxoris Rudolfi Regis]" was betrothed to "filia regis Anglie". This betrothal was arranged by King Rudolf to exploit Anglo/French rivalry. The marriage was arranged for 8 Sep 1278 in London, but postponed. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "ultimo die mensis Aprilis apud Westmonasterium" of "Gilbertus de Clare comes Gloverniæ" and "dominam Johannam dicta de Acra…filium regis Angliæ". The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the marriage of “Gilbertus secundus” and “Johanna de Acres, filia regis Edwardi primi”. The Annals of Dunstable record that “Edwardus rex…Johannam filiam suam secundo genitam” married “Gilberto comiti Gloverniæ” in 1290. The Annals of Dunstable record that “comitssa Gloverniæ, filia domini regis” married “cuidam militia sine assensu regio” in 1296. The primary source which confirms her second marriage more precisely has not yet been identified. Her second marriage was clandestine. The king, her father, did not know that Joan was already married when he agreed 16 Mar 1297 her marriage to Amédée Comte dde Savoie. He confiscated Joan's lands 3 Jul 1297 when he found out about the marriage, but pardoned her 2 Aug 1297. A manuscript history of the foundation of Dunmow Priory records the death in 1307 of “Johanna de Acres comitissa de Clare” anand her burial “in ecclesia fratrum S. Augustini apud Clare”. Betrothed to HARTMANN von Habsburg Graf von Kiburg, son of RUDOLF I Graf von Habsburg King of Germany & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg [Zollern] (Rheinfelden 1263-drownened between Breisach and Strasbourg 21 Dec 1281, bur Basel Münster). m firstly (Papal dispensation 16 Nov 1289, Westminster Abbey 30 Apr 1290) as his second wife, GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford "the Red Earl", son of RICHARD dde Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford & his second wife Maud de Lacy (Christchurch, Hampshire 2 Sep 1243-Monmouth Castle 7 Dec 1295, bur 22 Dec 1295 Tewkesbury). m secondly (secretly early 1297 or [12 May/3 Jul] 1297) as his first wife, RALPALPH de Monthermer, son of --- (-5 Apr 1325, bur Salisbury, Grey Friars church). He was a member of the household of her first husband. He was imprisoned by the King at Bristol when he learned of his marriage, but pardoned at Eltham 2 Aug 1297. He used the title Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, in right of his wife, but does not seem to have been so created.
      8. ISABELLA (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire or Windsor Castle or Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire [12/15] Mar 1274-1279, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annals of Worcester record the birth “XVIII Kal Apr” in 1274 of “Edwardo regi Angliæ filiam…Ysabellam”, although the date is too close to the recorded birth of her older brother Alfonso for 1274 to be the correct year of Isabella´s birth. The Annals of Winchester record the birth “XVIII Kal Apr…apud Wyndesore” in 1275 of “Alianora regina domino Edwardi regi Angliæ…filiam…Isabellam”. It is uncertain which date “XVIII Kal Apr” is intended to indicate.
      9. ALFONSO (Bayonne or Bordeaux or in Maine 24 Nov 1275-Windsor Castle 19 Aug 1284, bur Westminster Abbey). The Annals of Waverley records the birth “apud Baionam in Vasconia…Novembri…in vigilia beatæ Katerinæ virginis” in 1275 of “domina Aliananora regina Angliæ filium…Alfonsus”. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Baunam in Gasconia…subsequente diem S Clemente" 24 Nov [1273] of "filius…Aldephonsum" to "domino Edwardo". He is said to have been designated Earl of Chester in 1284. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "apud Windleshores die S Magni Martyris" 19 Aug [1284] of "dominus Aldephonsus domini regis Angliæ filius". The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the death “XIV Kal Sep” in 1284 of “dominus Alfonsus filius domini regis Angliæ” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium die Sabbati proxima post festum Sancti Bartholomæi”.
      10. BERENGARIA (Kennington Palace, Surrey 1 May [1277]-[1277/79], bur Westminster Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth in 1276 of "filiam…Berengariam" to "Alienor regina". The Annals of Winchester record the birth “Kal Mai…apud Kenyngtone” in 1276 of “Alianora regina domino Edwardi regi Angliæ…filiam…---”. It is consistent with the order of birth of King Edward´s children suggested here if Berengaria was born in May 1277 not May 1276.
      11. MARY (Windsor Castle 12 Mar or 22 Apr 1278-Amesbury Abbey before 8 Jul 1332, bur Amesbury Abbey). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "vigilie S Gregorii apud Windleshores" 11 Mar [1279] of "filiam…Mariam" to "Alienora regina Anglie". The Annals of Worcester record the birth “IV Id Mar” of “regina Angliæ…filiam apud Woodstock…vocata est ---”. She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 15 Aug 1285. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "Maria filia regis Angliæ" became a nun at Amesbury "die Nativitatis beatæ Mariæ" 8 Sep.
      12. MARGARET (Windsor Castle 11 Sep [1279/80]-1318 or after 11 Mar 1333, bur Brussels, Saints Michael and Gudula). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth in 1275 at Windsor of "filiam…Margaret" to "Alienora uxor regis, regina Angliæ". The order of the birth of the children of King Edward I is difficult to ascertain as none of the sources so far consulted records all their births and the different sources are inconsistent. If the Continuator of Florence of Worcestter is accepted for the years of birth of Alfonso (Nov [1273]) and Margaret (1275), the year of birth of Isabella (consistently recorded in Mar 1275 N.S. in all sources so far consulted) is impossible. A solution to the problem is if Alfonso was born in Nov 1275 (see above) and Margaret in either 1279 or 1280. The Annales Halesiensibus record the marriage "1290 XVII Id Iul" of "Margaretam filiam regis" and "Iohannes filius et heres ducis Brabantie". The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VI Id Jul" at Westminster of "Johannes filius et hæres Johannis ducis Brabantiæ" and "Margaretam filiam regis Anglie". The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "VII Id Iul" in 1290 of "domina Margareta…regis AnAngliæ filia" and "Johanni filio ducis Brabantiæ". m (Westminster Abbey 8 Jul 1290) JEAN de Brabant, son of JEAN I Duke of Brabant & his second wife Marguerite de Flandre (27 Sep 1275-Château de Tervueren 27 Oct 1312, Brussels Saints Michael and Gudula). He succeeded his father in 1294 as JEAN II Duke of Brabant.
      13. ELIZABETH (Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire Aug 1282-Quendon, Essex [5] May 1316, bur Walden Abbey, Essex). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Rothelan" in 1282 of "filiam…Elizabetham" to "Alienora regina Angliæ". The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Jan and "Elizabeth…Eduardi regis filia", recording in a later passage that she returned to England after her husband died and married (secondly) "comes Erffordie". The Annales LoLondonienses record the marriage "in festo Sanctæ Katerinæ…apud Caversham juxta Redyng" in 1302 of "Margareta filia regis Angliæ, comitissa Hoylandiæ et Salondiæ" and "domino Humfrido de Bohun comiti Herefordiæ"[553]. A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Humfredus octavus de Bohun, comes Herefordiæ et Essex, constabularius Angliæ et dominus Breconiæ” married “Elizabetham filiam regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici tertii”, adding that she was buried “apud Waldene”. The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the birth “apud Quenden” of “quædam filia” to “Humfridus de Bohun” and his wife “Elizabethæ…regis Angliæ Edwardi…filiæ” during whose birth her mother diedm firstly (Ipswich Priory Church, Suffolk 18 Jan 1297) JAN I Count of Holland and Zeeland, son of FLORIS V Count of Holland & his wife Béatrice de Flandre [Dampierre] (1284-10 Nov 1299). m secondly (Westminster Abbey 14 Nov 1302) HUMPHREY de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, son of HUMPHREY de Bohun 3rd Earl of Hereford and Essex & Maud de Fiennes ([1276]-killed in battle Boroughbridge 16 Mar 1322, bur York, church of the Friars Preachers). He succeeded his father in 1298 as Earl of Hereford and Essex, Constable of England.
      14. EDWARD "of Caernarvon" (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral). The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die S Marci Evangelistæ" 25 Apr [1284] at Caernarvon of "domini regi Angliæ filius…Eadwardus". He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England.
      15. BEATRICE (in Gascogne or Aquitaine after Aug 1286-young). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      16. BLANCHE ([1289/90]-young). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      King Edward I & his first wife [sic] had three children:
      17. THOMAS "of Brotherton" (Brotherton, Yorkshire 1 Jun 1300-[4 Aug/20 Sep] 1338, bur Abbey of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk). The Annals of Worcester record the birth “IV Non Jun…in manerio de Brothertone” in 1300 of “Margareta regina…filium…Thomas”[556]. He was created Earl of Norfolk 16 Dec 1312, and Marshal of England 10 Feb 1316.
      18. EDMUND "of Woodstock" (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 5 Aug 1301-executed outside Winchester Castle 19 Mar 1330, bur Winchester, Church of the Friars Minor, later transferred to Westminster Abbey). The Annals of Worcester record the birth “Non Aug…apud Wodestok” in 1301 of “regina [filium]…Edmundum”[557]. Summoned to Parliament 1320 as Lord Woodstock. Appointed Keeper of Kent, Dover Castle and the Cinque Ports 16 Jun 1321. He was created Earl of Kent 28 Jul 1321.
      19. ELEANOR (Winchester 4 May 1306-Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 1311). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
      King Edward I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):
      20. JOHN de Botetourt ([1265]-25 Nov 1324). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Summoned to Parliament 1305 as Lord Botetourt. “««s87»» [1]
    Person ID I11620  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 19 Oct 2017 

    Father Henry III, King of England,   b. 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Nov 1272, Palace of Westminster, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Mother Eleanor, de Provence,   b. Abt 1223,   d. Jun 1291  (Age ~ 68 years) 
    Married 14 Jan 1236  Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F4094  Group Sheet

    Family 1 Leonor or Eleanor, de Castile y León,   b. 1241,   d. 29 Nov 1290, Harby, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years) 
    Married 1 Nov 1254  Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile and León, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Eleanor,   b. 1269,   d. 12 Oct 1298  (Age 29 years)
     2. Joan,   b. 1265,   d. 1265  (Age 0 years)
     3. John,   b. 1266,   d. 1271  (Age 5 years)
     4. Henry,   b. 13 Jul 1268,   d. 14 Oct 1274  (Age 6 years)
     5. Alice
     6. Katherine,   b. 1264,   d. 1264  (Age 0 years)
     7. Joan, of Acre,   b. 1272,   d. 23 Apr 1307  (Age 35 years)
     8. Isabella
     9. Alfonso,   b. 24 Nov 1273,   d. Aug 1284  (Age 10 years)
     10. Berengaria or Berenice,   b. 1 May 1276,   d. 27 Jun 1278  (Age 2 years)
     11. Mary,   b. 1278,   d. 1332, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 54 years)
     12. Margaret,   b. 11 Sep 1275,   d. 1318  (Age 42 years)
    +13. Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan,   b. 7 Aug 1282, Rhuddlan Castle, Denbighshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 May 1316, Quendon, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years)
     14. Edward II, of England,   b. 25 Apr 1285,   d. 21 Sep 1327  (Age 42 years)
     15. Beatrice
     16. Blanche
    Last Modified 19 Oct 2017 
    Family ID F4036  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Marguerite, de France,   b. 1279,   d. 14 Feb 1317, Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Married 8 Sep 1299  Canterbury, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Thomas, of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk,   b. 1 Jun 1300,   d. 1338  (Age 37 years)
     2. Edmund, of Woodstock,   b. 5 Aug 1301,   d. 19 Mar 1330  (Age 28 years)
     3. Eleanor,   b. 4 May 1306,   d. 1311  (Age 4 years)
    Last Modified 19 Oct 2017 
    Family ID F4037  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, Middlesex, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 1 Nov 1254 - Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile and León, Spain Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 8 Sep 1299 - Canterbury, Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Westminster Abbey, London, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Sources 
    1. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees..