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Clovis I (Chlodovech), King of the Franks

Male 467 - 511  (44 years)


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  • Name Clovis I (Chlodovech)  
    Suffix King of the Franks 
    Born 464/67  Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 27 Nov 511  Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • “CHLODOVECH [Clovis], son of CHILDERICH I King of the Franks & his wife Basina --- ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & BBasina. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childerico" as father of "Chlodovecho rege". He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks. He defeated Syagrius, ruler at Soissons, in 486. The Liber Historiæ Francorum recordds that "Chlodovechus" expanded his kingdom "usque Sequanam" and afterwards "usque Ligere fluvio". He remained a pagan after his marriage to a Catholic wife, but converted to Christianity in [496] allegedly having vowed to do so if successful in a battle against the Alamans. He allied with Godegisel against Gondebaud King of Burgundy in [500]. He defeated and killed Alaric II King of the Visigoths at the campus Vogladensis, probably Voulan, near Poitiers, athough this is popularly known as the battle of Vouillé, in 507. Gregory of Tours records that Clovis took control of the territory of the Sigebert King of the Franks of the Rhine, after persuading Sigeric's son Chloderic to kill his father and then killing Chloderic, as well as the territory of Chararic King of the Salian Franks. Gregory of Tours records the death of King Clovis in Paris "five years after the battle of Vouillé" and his burial in the church of the Holy Apostles, which he and Queen Clotilde had built.
      [m firstly] ---, daughter of --- [of the Franks of the Rhine]. According to Gregory of Tours, the mother of Theoderich was one of King Clovis's concubines not his first wife. Settipani suggests that his mother was a Frank from the Rhine region, based on the inheritance of Austrasia by Theoderich and the roots "Theode" and "Ric" in his name, possibly transmitted through his mother from Theodemer and Richomer who were both 4th century Frankish kings. However,
      m [secondly] (492) CHROTECHILDIS [Clotilde] of Burgundy, daughter of CHILPERICH King of Burgundy & his wife --- ([480]-Tours, monastery of Saint-Martin 544 or 548, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names "Clotilde" as the younger daughter of Chilperich, recording that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, but that the latter accepted a request for her hand in marriage from Clovis King of the Franks. Fredegar states that she was driven into exile to Geneva by her uncle, after he allegedly murdered her father, and that King Clovis requested her hand in marriage as a means of controlling Gundobad's power. A charter dated 2 OOct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" names "uxoris meæ Chrochildis…patris Chilperici regis Burgundiorum". Gregory of Tours records Clotilde's lack of success in converting her husband to Christianity until the fifteenth year of his reign, when he and his people were baptised by St Rémy Bishop of Reims. Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died, and in a later passage records her death in Tours and burial in Paris next to her husband in the church which she had built. She was canonised by the Catholic church, feast day 3 Jun.
      King Clovis & his first [wife/concubine] had one child:
      1. THEODERICH ([485]-end 533, bur Metz). Gregory of Tours names Theoderich as son of King Clovis by one of his mistresses, born before his marriage to Clotilde. "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chloodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia. In 508, he led his father's campaign against the Visigoths, allied with the Burgundians, and temporarily occupied Aquitaine. He succeeded his father in 511 as THEODERICH I King of the Franks, based at Reims, his territory covering the right bank of the Rhine, the Moselle valley and Champagne, the lands which were later to become the kingdom of Austrasia. He helped Hermanfrid King of the Thuringians defeat the latter's brother Baderic, after being promised half his kingdom, a promise which was not kept. Gregory of Tours records that King Theoderich and his half-brother King Clotaire invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred (who was later killed) and annexed the kingdom. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubinana" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons. Adam of Bremen names "Hadugato" as the duke of the Saxons to whom "Theodericus rex Francorum" sent legates, undated but recorded immediately after the Thuringian invasion of 531. Gregory of Tours records the death of Theoderich in the twenty third year of his reign. m firstly ---. The assumed birth date range of King Theoderich's son, Theodebert, indicates that the king's known wife Suavegotha cannot have been his mother, considering her own estimated birth date, but nothing is known about the king's presumed first wife or concubine. m secondly ([507/16]) SUAVEGOTHA of Burgundy, daughter of SIGISMUND King of Burgundy & his first wife Ostrogotha of the Oststrogoths (495 or later-). Gregory of Tours records that Theoderich King of the Franks married the daughter of Sigismund but does not name her. The primary source which gives her name has not been identified. Gregory does not name Suavegotha's mother, but chronologically it is more probable that she was born from Sigismund's first marriage, which is also suggested by the root "-gotha" in her first name. King Theoderich & his first wife had one child:
      a) THEODEBERT ([499/504]-end 547). Gregory of Tours names Theodebert as son of Theoderich, specifying that he was born before the death of his paternal grandfather. His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adolesescent when he led the Frankish campaign against the Danes in 515. Gregory of Tours records that his father sent him "with a powerful army" to repel the Danish invasion led by Chlochilaich. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum". He succeeded his father in 533 as THEODEBERT I King of the Franks at Reims, Gregory of Tours recording that his childless uncle Chiildebert then adopted him as his heir. Gregory records King Theodebert's campaign in northern Italy, which he appears to date to before the death of Queen Wisigardis which is recorded in the following section. Theodebert subjugated Pannonia and threatened to attack Byzantium across the Danube. He was killed while hunting. Gregory of Tours records that he died in the fourteenth year of his reign, and 37 years after the death of his paternal grandfather. The Marii Episcopi Aventicennsis Chronica records the death in 548 of "Theudebertus rex magnus Francorum". m firstly ([end 533/early 534]) as her second husband, DEOTERIA, widow of ---, daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours records that Theodebert seduced Deoteria, wife of an inhabitant of Cabrières near Béziers, after his betrothal to Wisigardis, and in a later passage that he married her after the death of his father. According to Gregory of Tours, Theodebert deserted her after being pressured to marry his previous betrothed, but refused to take her back after his second wife died. m secondly (betrothed before 533, 540) WISIGARDIS, daughter of WACCHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides (-[541/42]). Paulus Diaconus names ""Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Wisigarda married "Theodeperto regi Francorum. Gregory of Tours records that Theoderich betrothed his son Theodebert to "Wisigard, a king's daughter" and in a later passage that Theodebert married her "seven years [after he] had become engaged to [her]" after being pressured to desert Deoteria but that Wisigardis "soon died". m thirdly ([542/47]) ---. Gregory of Tours records that Theodebert "married another woman" after his second wife died but gives no details. King Theodebert & his first wife had two children:
      i) daughter ([532/33] or before-drowned Verdun ----). Gregory of Tours records that Deoteria bore a daughter to Theodebert, who left mother and child at Clermont-Ferrand when he returned to assert his claim to the throne on learning that his father was dying. In a later passage, he records that she drowned in the river after her mother tipped her over a bridge in Verdun "afraid that the king might desire her and take advantage of her".
      ii) THEODEBALD ([534]-555). Gregory of Tours names Theodebald as the son of Theodebert and his wife Deoteria, implying that he was born after his parents' marriage. He succeeded his father in 547 as THEODEBALD I King of the Franks at Reims, under the regency of his aunt Theodechildis. On his death, his territory was taken by his great uncle King Clotaire. Gregory of Tours records that he had a stroke and could not move from the waist down, dying in the seventh year of his reign. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 555 of "Theudebaldus rex Francorum". m ([554]) as her first husband, WALDRADA, daughter of WACCHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha [Austregusa] of the Gepides. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wisigarda…secundæ Walderada" as the two daughters of Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Waldrada married "Scusuald regis Francorum" and later "Garipald". The Historia Langobardorum names "Waldrada" as Wacho's second daughter by his second wife, specifying that she married "Chusubald rex Francorum". Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Walderada married "Cususupald alio regi Francorum" and later "Garipald". Gregory of Tours names "Vuldetrada" as the wife of King Theodebald. Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus". According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria", which does not imply that Clotaire married Waldrada. She [married secondly], her first husband's great-uncle, Clotaire I King of the Franks, and thirdly (after 555) Garibald Duke in Bavaria.
      King Theodebert & his [first/second/third] wife had one child:
      iii) BERTHOARA (-after 566). The Carmina of Fortunat names "Berthoara…filie digna patri, te, Theudebercthe" when recording that she encouraged the building of the baptistry of the church of Mainz. She is not mentioned by Gregory of Tours, and it is not known who was her mother.
      King Theoderich & his second wife had one child:
      b THEODECHILDIS [Techilde] ([516/20]-[570/595]). Procopius refers to a sister of King Theodebert who was the wife first of Hermengisel King of the Warnes and secondly of Hermenegisel's son Radegis, the latter eventually sending her back home. Flodoard names "Teudechildi, prefatæ reginæ [=Suavegotta regina] filiæ" recording that her mother allowed her the usufruct of a property which she donated to the church of Reims and later that she made her own testamentary donation to the same church, although it is not certain that this is the same person. Fortunatus wrote an epitaph to “Theodechildis Reginæ”, which indicates presumably that she lived until the late 6th century. She is not mentioned by Gregory of Tours. According to Settipani, she was regent for her nephew King Theodebald I in 547 but he does not cite the source on which this information is based. [A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" purprports to be written when "filia mea…Theodechildis" was becoming a nun. The editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores series assumes that this charter refers to the daughter of King Theoderich. Another charter, also classified as spurious, in the name of "Theodechildis filia Chlodoveo" purports to record a donation to the monastery of St Peter at Sens dated Sep 569.] m firstly ([540]) as his [second] wife, HERMENGISEL King of the Warnes, son of --- (-before 547). m secondly (before 547, repudiated [547/50]) her stepson, RADEGIS of the Warnes, son of HERMENGISEL King of the Warnes & his [first] wife ---. .
      King Clovis & his second wife had [six] children:
      2. INGOMER (b and d 493). Gregory of Tours names Ingomer as eldest son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, recording that his mother insisted on having him baptised against the wishes of her husband, who considered his early death as a sign of dissatisfaction on the part of the pagan gods.
      3. CHLODOMER ([494/95]-killed in battle Vézeronce 21 Jun 524). Gregory of Tours names Chlodomer as second son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde. "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia. He succeeded his father in 511 as CHLODOMER King of the Franks, at Orléans, his territory covering the Loire valley from Orléans to Tour, Chartres, Sens and Auxerre. Gregory of Tours records that Chlodomer's moother incited him to attack Burgundy to revenge the death of her parents. He defeated and captured Sigismund King of Burgundy in his first invasion, but was defeated and killed by Sigismund's brother Gondemar during a second invasion. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlodomiris" led an army into Burgundy against "Godmarum", a marginal additional recording that "Gladmirus filius Clodovei regis Francorum" was killed during the course of the attack. m ([514] or 521) as her first husband, GUNTHEUCA [Gondioque], daughter of --- [King of Burgundy]. Gregory of Tours names Guntheuc as widow of King Chlodomer and records her second marriage with his brother Clotaire, but does not give her origin. The Liber Historiæ Fraancorum records that "Chlotharius" married "uxorem fratris sui…Gundeucam". Settipani suggests, for onomastic reasons only, that she may have belonged to the Burgundian royal family which, if correct, means that she must have been the daughter of either King Gondebaud or his brother Godogisel. However, Gregory makes no mention of this in his lengthy description of King Chlodomer's campaigns in Burgundy, an omission which is surprising if his wife was related to his opponents. She married secondly ([524]) as his first wife, Clotaire I [Chlothachar/Lothar] King of the Franks. King Chlodomer & his wife had three children:
      a) THEODEBALD ([521]-murdered Paris 531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their ffather was killed. In a later passage, Gregory records that the two older sons were murdered by their uncle King Clotaire, who suspected that his mother was plotting for their succession to the throne, specifying that the older son was 10 years old.
      b) GUNTHAR ([523]-murdered Paris 531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their father was killed. In a later passage, Gregory records that the two older sons were murdered by their uncle King Clotaire, who suspected that his mother was plotting for their succession to the throne, specifying that the younger son was 7 years old.
      c) CHLODOVALD [Cloud] ([524]-7 Sep [560], bur Monastery of Saint-Martin [later Saint-Cloud] near Paris). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their father was killed. In a later passage, Gregory records that Chlodovald escaped the fate of his brothers and entered a religious life. He became a monk at Nogent (now Saint-Cloud), near Paris, where he founded the monastery of Saint-Martin, renamed Saint-Cloud by the 8th century. The Vita Sancti Chlodovaldi records the death of Chlodovald on "VII Id Sep" but does not specify the year. He was canonised as St Cloud, feast day 7 Sep.
      4. CHILDEBERT ([497]-23 Dec 558, bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés). Gregory of Tours names Childebert as son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Chlodomer and before Clotaire. "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia. He succeeded his father in 511 as CHILDEBERT I King of the Franks, at Paris, his territory covering the Seine and Somme valleys, as well as the northern coast of France as far as Brittany, Nantes and Angers. Gregory of Tours records that King Childebert attacked and defeated Amalric King of the Visigoths, which marked the end of the Visigothic presence in France and the start of the transfer of their power-b-base to Spain. He and his brother Clotaire launched a third attack on Burgundy, besieged Autun and occupied the whole kingdom, deposing King Gondemar II. Gregory of Tours records that the childless King Childebert adopted his nephew Theodebert as his heir after the death of the latter's father. He founded the monastery in Paris which, from the end 11th century, was called Saint-Germain des Prés. Gregory of Tours records the death of King Childebert in Paris and his burial in the church of St Vincent. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 558 of "Childebertus rex Francorum". m ULTROGOTHA, daughter of --- (-after 561, bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés). Gregory of Tours names Ultrogotha as the wife of King Childebert, specifying that she was sent into exile with her two daughters by King Clotaire after her husband died. Childebert I & his wife had two children:
      a) CHRODESINDIS (-after [566/67], bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés). Gregory of Tours records that Ultrogotha and her two (unnamed) daughters were sent into exile by King Clotaire after her husband died. Settipani cites a spurious charter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés dated 20 Aug 566, "falsified in the 11th century from a lost act of King Clotaire I", which names the two sisters.
      b) CHRODOBERGA (-after [566/67]). Gregory of Tours records that Ultrogotha and her two (unnamed) daughters were sent into exile by King Clotaire after her husband died. Settipani cites a spurious charter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés dated 20 Aug 566, "falsified in the 11th century from a lost act of King Clotaire I", which names the two sisters.
      5.CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire/Lothar] ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard). Gregory of Tours names Clotaire as son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Childebert. He succeeded his father in 511 as CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, at Soissons.
      6. [THEODECHILDIS ([492/501]-576). A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" purports to be written when "filia mea…Theodechildis" was becoming a nun. As noted above, the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores series assumes that this charter refers to the daughter of King Theoderich. Another charter, classified as spurious, in the name of "Theodechildis filia Chlodoveo" purports to record a donation to the monastery of St Peter at Sens dated Sep 569. She founded the monastery of Mauriac in Auvergne. m ---, king.]
      7. CHROTHIELDIS [Clotilde] ([502/11]-531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours refers to the marriage of the (unnamed) sister of the four brothers Theoderich, Chlodomer, Childebert and Clotaire with Amalric King of the Visigoths, arranged after the death of their father, specifying that she was sent to Spain "with a great dowry of expensive jewellery". Gregory names her Clotilde in a later passage in which he records that she was maltreated by her husband, and brought back to France by her brother King Childebert who attacked and defeated King Amalric, but died on the journey and was buried in Paris beside her father. m (511) AMALRIC King of the Visigoths, son of ALARIC II King of the Visigoths & his wife Theodegotha of the Ostrogoths (502-murdered 531).
      8. [daughter . The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop. This is the only reference so far identified to this supposed daughter of King Clovis, whose existence should presumably therefore be treated with caution. The reference to her supposed grandson Arnold suggests some confusion with the sources which allege the existence of Bilichildis, possible daughter of King Clotaire I (see below). m ---.] [Two possible children:]
      a) [AGIULF (-22 Nov ----). Bishop of Metz. The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[135]. A list of bishops of Metz records "Aigulfus" as 26th bishop, holding the position for 20 years, and his death "X Kal Dec".]
      b) [daughter . m ---.] [One possible child:]
      i) [ARNOLD . Bishop of Metz. The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop. A list of bishops of Metz records "Aigulfus" as 27th bishop, holding the position for 8 years and one month, but omits the date of his death.]”


      “Ruled the Franks 481-511

Put an end to Roman rule in northern Gaul by defeating Syagrius at Soissons in 486. Conquered the Alamanni in 496 and defeated the Visigoths at Tours.

He converted to Catholicism as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among Germanic peoples, at the instigation of his wife, the Burgundian Clotilde, a Catholic. He was baptized in the Cathedral of Rheims as most future French kings would be. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of France and Western Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France) which stands at the centre of European affairs. He is considered the founder both of France (which his state closely resembled geographically at his death) and the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.”

      “King of the Salian Franks (482-511). Created the Frankish kingdom in the aftermath of Roman collapse. At his death, it covered all of what is now France except its Mediterranean coast, together with Belgium and substantial territories east of the Rhine. The new kingdom was created by victories over the remnants of the Roman army of the Rhine, Bretons, Alamanni, Thuringians and Visigoths, and by a process of centralization which saw Clovis eliminate a series of other Frankish warband leaders, uniting their followers in each case to his own.”««s60»», ««s62»», ««s87»» [1, 2, 3]
    Person ID I10869  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 12 May 2019 

    Father Childerich I, King of the Franks,   b. 436,   d. 26 Nov 481  (Age 45 years) 
    Mother Basina,   b. 438,   d. 499  (Age 61 years) 
    Family ID F3855  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 ? ? 
    Children 
     1. Theoderich I, King of the Franks,   b. Abt 485,   d. 533  (Age ~ 48 years)
    Last Modified 12 May 2019 
    Family ID F4736  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 St. Chrotechildis, Princess of Burgundy,   b. 465, Burgundy, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Jun 548, Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 83 years) 
    Children 
     1. Ingomer,   b. 493,   d. 493  (Age 0 years)
     2. Chlodomer, King of the Franks
    +3. Childebert I, King of the Franks,   b. Abt 497, Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Dec 558  (Age ~ 61 years)
     4. Clotaire I (Chlothachar), King of the Franks,   b. 501/02,   d. 561  (Age 59 years)
     5. Chrothieldis (Clothilde or Clotilde)
     6. Theodechildis,   b. 492/501,   d. 576  (Age 75 years)
    +7. ?
    +8. Clotaire (Chlothachar, Clotaire, Lothar), King of the Franks,   b. 497, Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Nov 561, Compiegne, Oise, Picardy, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 64 years)
    Last Modified 12 May 2019 
    Family ID F3792  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 464/67 - Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 27 Nov 511 - Paris, Ile-de-France, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Sources 
    1. [S60] A Family Tree: Ancestors and Relations of Alexis William Casimir., Casimir, Bernard.

    2. [S62] The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians., Heather, Peter., (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006.).

    3. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees.