Connected Bloodlines

Clotaire (Chlothachar, Clotaire, Lothar), King of the Franks

Male 497 - 561  (64 years)


Personal Information    |    Sources    |    Event Map    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name Clotaire (Chlothachar, Clotaire, Lothar)  
    Suffix King of the Franks 
    Born 497  Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 23 Nov 561  Compiegne, Oise, Picardy, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • “CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire/Lothar], son of CHLODOVECH King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard). Gregory of Tours names Clotaire as son of King Clovivis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Childebert. "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia. He succeeded his father in 511 as CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, at Soissons, his territory covering Soissons, Laon, Noyon, Arras, Cambrai, Tournai and the lower Meuse, the lands which were later to become the kingdom of Neustria. Gregory of Tours records that King Clotaire and his half-brother King Theoderich invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred and annexed the kingdom, specifying that Clotaire brought his second wife back as part of his booty. He and his brother King Childebert launched a third attack on Burgundy, besieged Autun aand occupied the whole kingdom, deposing King Gondemar II in 534. He invaded Spain, with his brother King Childebert, and besieged Zaragoza but was forced to withdraw. He inherited the territories of his great-nephew King Theodebert in 555 anand those of his brother King Childebert in 558, when he became sole king of the Franks. Gregory of Tours records his death, in the fifty-first year of his reign on the first anniversary of the killing of his son Chramn, at Soissons from a fever caught while hunting in the forest of Cuise and his burial at Soissons Saint Medard. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 561 of "Chlothachrius rex".
      m firstly ([524]) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, GUNTHEUCA [Gondioque], widow of CHLODOMER King of the Franks, daughter of --- [King of Burgundy]. Gregory of Tours names Guntheuc as widow of King Chlodomer and records her second marrriage with his brother Clotaire, but does not give her origin[146]. Settipani suggests, for onomastic reasons only, that she may have belonged to the Burgundian royal family which, if correct, means that she must have been the daughter of either King Gondebaud or his brother Godogisel. However, Gregory makes no mention of this in his lengthy description of King Chlodomer's campaigns in Burgundy, an omission which is surprising if his wife was related to his opponents.
      m secondly (531, repudiated) RADEGUND of Thuringia [Radégonde], daughter of BERTHECHAR [Bertaire] King of the Thuringians & his wife --- (Erfurt 518-Poitiers 13 Aug 587, bur Poitiers, basilique Sainte-Marie-hors-les-Murs). Gregory of Tours namees Radegund as the orphaned daughter of Berthar. The Vitæ Sanctæ Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario". In a later passage, Gregory records thatat, after the Frankish invasion of Thuringia, Radegund formed part of the booty taken home by Clotaire I King of the Franks, who later married her. The testament of Radegundis dated to [584/87] survives. Gregory of Tours records the death of St Radegund on 13 Aug. She was canonised, her feast day is 13 Aug.
      [m] thirdly ([532]) INGUNDIS [Ingonde], daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours names Ingund as the wife of King Clotaire and mother of six of his children. She was King Clotaire's concubine from [517].
      [m] fourthly ARNEGUNDIS [Aregonde], sister of his third wife Ingonde, daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours specifies that King Clotaire's wife Aregonde was the sister of his wife Ingonde, making clear that the marriage was polygamous as he records that Clotaire reported his "marriage" to Aregonde to his wife Ingonde. She is named "Chæregundem" in the Liber Historiæ Francorum.
      [m] [fifthly] (555, repudiated) [as her second husband], WALDRADA, widow of THEODEBALD King of the Franks, daughter of WACCHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides. According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald, before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria", which does not imply that Clotaire married Waldrada. Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus". She married thirdly (after 555) Garibald Duke in Bavaria.
      Mistress (1): CHUNSINA, daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours names Chunsina as the mistress of King Clotaire, mother of Chramn. She is named "Gunsinam" in the Liber Historiæ Francorum.
      Mistress (2): ---. The name of King Clotaire's second mistress is not known.
      King Clotaire & his third [wife] had [seven] children:
      1. GUNTHAR ([517]-after 532). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Gunthar died in his father's lifetime. It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate. Gregory of Tours reports that he served as an officer in his father's army, but died young.
      2. CHILDERICH (-before 561). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Childerich died during his father's lifetime. It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate.
      3. CHARIBERT ([520]-Paris end 567, bur [Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés]). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde. It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate. He succeeded his father in 561 as CHARIBERT King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by his uncle King Childebert, with Paris as his capital. ThThe Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561. Herimannus names "Hariberti rex libidini deditus" when recording his marriages. After his death, his kingdom was divided among his brothers. m firstly (repudiated) INGOLBERGA [Ingelberge], daughter of --- ([520]-Tours 589). Gregory of Tours names Ingoberg as the wife of King Charibert, but records that he dismissed her and took Merofled in her place. Herimannus records the repudiation by "Hariberti" of his wife "Ingoberga". She retired to Tours after her repudiation. Gregory of Tours records the death of Queen Ingoberg, widow of Chharibert, in the fourteenth year of King Childebert's reign, saying he thought that she was in her 70th year, although this age seems exaggerated considering the likely birth date of her daughter. [m] secondly (after 561) MEROFLEDIS, daughter of ---, a wool-worker. Gregory of Tours records that King Charibert fell in love with the two daughters of a wool-worker, Marcovefa and Merofled, and that after Queen Ingoberg humiliated their father by making him prepare wool for the royal housusehold he dismissed the Queen and replaced her by Merofled. [m] thirdly (after 561) THEODECHILDIS, daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours names Theudechild, daughter of the shepherd who looked after King Charibert's flocks, as another of the king's women and that after Charibert died she offered her hand in marriage to King Gontran, who seized most of her goods and packed her off to a nunnery at Arles from which she unsuccessfully tried to escape. [m] fourthly his sister-in-law, MARCOVEFA, sister of MEROFLEDIS, daughter of --- (-before end 567). Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Charibert and Marcovefa, sister of Merofled, for which they were excommunicated by "Saint Germanus the Bishop", as well as Marcovefa's death soon after before her husband. King Charibert & his first wife had one child:
      a) BERTA ([before 560]-[601/before 616], bur Canterbury, Church of St Peter and St Paul). Gregory of Tours records that the daughter of King Charibert and Ingoberg "eventually married a man from Kent and went to live there". Bede records that Æthelberht King of Kent had "a Christian wife of the royal family of the Franks called Bertha". It is reasonable to assume that Berta was born before 560, given the subsequent marital history of her father, who died in 567 having married three times after repudiating his first wife, although it is possible that some if not all of his marriages were polygamous. Kirby suggests that Berta's marriage took place in [580] after analysing the various contradictory chronological indicationns in contemporary sources. According to Bede, King Æthelberht received Bertha "from her parents". As her father died in 567, and her mother in 589, this appears to mean that she married before 567 if taken literally, which seems unlikely. The word "parents" may in this context mean "relatives" more broadly. Already a Christian when she came to England, she was accompanied by Liudhard, a Frankish bishop, although if he attempted to convert her husband his efforts must have been unsuccessful in view of the later conversion of King Æthelberht by St Augustine. Queen Berta is named in Pope Gregory I's letter of 601 to her husband. Bede records the burial of Queen Berta in the same church as her husband. m ([580]) as his first wife, ÆTHELBERHT King of Kent, son of EORMENRIC King of Kent & his wife --- (after [550]-24 Feb 616, bur Canterbury, Church of St Peter and St Paul).
      King Charibert & his second [wife] had one child:
      b) BERTHEFLEDIS (after 561-after 589). Gregory of Tours names Berthefled as daughter of King Charibert, recording that she lived at the nunnery of St Martin at Tours but left to live at Le Mans (after a visit by Queen Ingiltrude complaining about her daughter Berthegund, which dates the event to 589), and that "she was a woman who ate and slept a lot, and she had no interest at all in the holy offices". The primary source which confirms that she was born from her father´s second [marriage] has not yet been identified.
      King Charibert & his third wife had one child:
      c) son (b and d after 561). Gregory of Tours refers to the unnamed son of King Charibert and Theudechild who was buried immediately after his birth.
      King Charibert & his --- wife had [one child]:
      d) [CHROTIELDIS [Clotilde] ([after 561]-after 590). Gregory of Tours records that Clotilde, who "used to pretend that she was Charibert's daughter" (which suggests doubts about the correctness of her assertion), led a revolt in the convent of Sainte-Croix in Poitiers, together with Basina daughter of King Chilperich, against abbess Leubovera. She was excommunicated for involvement in political intrigue, but accepted back at her convent. If Chrotieldis was the daughter of King Charibert, no indication has been found concerning the identity of her mother.]
      4. GUNTCHRAMN [Gontran] ([532/34]-28 Mar 592, bur basilique Saint-Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saône). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde. He succeeded his father in 561 as GONTRAN King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by his uncle King Chlodomer, with Orléans as his capital. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561. He adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his successor in 577, the arrangement being renewed under the treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587. Fredegar records the death of King Guntram "anno 33 regni…V Kal Apr" and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Marcelli" in the monastery which he had built. m firstly ([556]) MARCATRUDIS, daughter of MAGNACHAR Duke of the Transjuranian Franks & his wife --- (-after [556]). Gregory of Tours names Marcatrude, daughter of Magnachar, as the wife of King Gontran, specifying that she poisoned her stepson Gundobald but died soon after her own son. m secondly (56566) AUSTRECHILDIS [Bobilla], daughter of --- ([548]-Sep 580). Gregory of Tours names Austrechild "also called Bobilla" as the second wife of King Gontran. She was a servant in the household of his first wife's father. Gregory of Tours records the death of Queen Austrechild, specifying that "this wicked woman" requested as a dying wish that the two doctors who had unsuccessfully treated her should have their throats cut. An epitaph to “Austrigildis Reginæ” refers to her as “Regum genetrix et Regia conjunx”. The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis”. Mistress (1): (before [549]) VENERANDA, daughter of ---. Gregory of Tours names Veneranda, servant of one of his subjects, as the mistress of King Gontran before his first marriage. King Gontran & his first wife had one child:
      a) son (-after [556]). Gregory of Tours refers to, but does not name, the son of King Gontran and Queen Marcatrudis, specifying that he died soon after the murder of his half-brother Gundobald[196].
      King Gontran & his second wife had four children:
      b) CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire] ([567]-577 or before). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Clotaire and Chlodomer as the two sons of King Gontran & his second wife but refers to him as having been "left childless" in a later passage which records that he adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his heir. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 577 of "regis atque egregii adolescente Chlothacarius et Chlodomeris filii Gunthegramni regis". An epitaph is written in honour of “Clotharii fratris Chlodomeri”.
      c) CHLODOMER (-577 or before). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Lothar and Chlodomer as the two sons of King Gontran & his second wife but refers to him as having been "left childless" in a later passage which records that he adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his heir. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 577 of "regis atque egregii adolescente Chlothacarius et Chlodomeris filii Gunthegramni regis". An epitaph is written in honour of “Chlodomeri filii Guntchramni Regis”.
      d) CHLODOBERGA (-before 22 Jun 585). The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis”.
      e) CHROTHIELDIS (-before 22 Jun 585). The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis”. The treaty of Andelot dated Nov 587, quoted by Gregory of Tours, confirms donations by King Guntram to his daughter Clotilde.
      King Gontran had one child by Mistress (1):
      f) GUNDOBALD ([549]-after [556]). Gregory of Tours names Gundobad as son of King Gontran and his mistress Veneranda, specifying that his father sent him to Orléans and that he was poisoned by his stepmother Queen Marcatrudis.
      5. SIGEBERT ([535]-murdered Vitry [Nov/Dec] 575, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde[207]. He succeeded his father in 561 as SIGEBERT I King of the Franks, at Reims, later at Metz.
      6. CHLODESINDIS (-before 567). Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Clothsind married Alboin King of the Lombards. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Flutsuinda…filia Flothario regis Francorum" as the first wife of Albuin. The Historia Langobardorum names "Ludusenda…filia Flothari regis" as the first wife of Alboin. Paulus Diaconus names "Chlotharius rex Francorum, Chlotsuindam ei suam filiam" as wife of Alboin[212]. m ([556/60]) as his first wife, ALBOIN King of the Lombards, son of AUDOIN King of the Lombards & his wife --- (-murdered 28 Jun 572). He was crowned King of the Lombards in Italy at Milan in [570].
      7. [BILICHILDIS . The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlotharius…rex" had seven children by "Ingunde", the same six as are named in Gregory of Tours with a marginal note adding "Blitchildim" as the seventh child and specifying that she married "Ansbertus nobilissimus" and by him was mother of "Arnoldum". An alternative origin for Bilichildis is provided by the Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude which names “Dagobertum Regem et Blithildem sororem eius” as children of “Lotharius…[et] Beretrudam” (chronologically impossible if she was the grandmother of Arnoul Bishop of Metz), but commenting that “others say” that Bilichildis was the daughter of “primi Lotharii avi istius”, adding that Bilichildis married “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania”. The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names "Hlotharius [rex]…filia…Blithild" and records her marriage to "Ansbertus". The recorded names of the alleged children of Bilichildis do not have a Merovingian ring about them. It is uncertain whether Bilichildis existed at all or whether she and her family were invented for the purposes of compiling a Merovingian descent for the Carolingian dynasty, an enterprise undertaken in Metz from the late 8th century oonwards. Her absence from the list of the children of King Clotaire given by Gregory of Tours certainly suggests that she was a spurious later invention, although Gregory's treatment of the families of the early Merovingians was not exhaustive, as can be seen from the examples of Berthoara, daughter of King Theodebald I, and Theodechildis sister of the same king (see above), whom Gregory does not mention at all. Settipani demonstrates convincingly that there are sufficient indicatioions in other primary sources that parts, if not all, these reconstructions may be based on historical fact. Sifting the fact from the fiction is inevitably speculative. m ANSBERT, son of ---. A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his brothers "Deotarium, Firminum, Gamardum, Aigulfum episcopum et Ragnifridum" and their supposed descendants, Ansbert's marriage to "filiam Hlotarii regis Francorum…Blithildem" and their children as shown below.]
      King Clotaire & his fourth wife had one child:
      8. CHILPERICH (before 535-murdered Chelles [27 Sep/9 Oct] 584, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés). Gregory of Tours names Chilperich as the son of King Clotaire and his wife Aregund. He succeeded his father in 561 as CHILPERICH I King of the Franks, at Soissons.
      King Clotaire had one child by Mistress (1):
      9. CHRAMN (-murdered [30 Nov/31 Dec] 560). Gregory of Tours names Chramn as the son of King Clotaire and his concubine Chunsina. Gregory records that Chramn was hated by the townsfolk of Clermont-Ferrand, where he lived, for his dissolute way of life, and in a later passage specifies that he moved on to Poitiers where he conspired against his father. Gregory also says that Chramn allied himself with his uncle King Childebert in Paris, later rebelling once more against his father before fleeing to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered. The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Cramnus filius Chlothacharii regis" sought a hiding place from "Childeberto patruo suo" in 555. Paulus Diaconus records that "duce Francorum Chramnichis" laid waste to Trentino after defeating a Lombard invasion of France but was defeated by "Euin Tridentum dux" at "Salurnis". Gregorory of Tours records his father, King Clotaire, died on the first anniversary of the killing of his son Chramn. m CHALDA, daughter of WILLICHAR & his wife --- (-murdered 560). Gregory of Tours records that the wife of Chramn was the daughter oof Willichar, but does not name her. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Willecharii filiam…Chaldam" as the wife of Chramn, adding in a later passage that "Willecharius…socer eius" fled with the family to "basilicam sancti Martini". Gregory of Tours says that Chramn fled to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered. Chramn & his wife had --- children:
      a) daughters (-murdered 560). Gregory of Tours says that Chramn fled to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered. No indication has been found concerning the number or names of Chramn´s daughters.
      King Clotaire had one possible child by Mistress (2):
      10. [GUNDOBALD "Ballomer" (-murdered Mar 585). Gregory of Tours records that Gundobald claimed to be the son of King Clotaire, who disowned him, that he was brought up by King Childebert and later supported by King Charibert. He was received in Italy by General Narses, married and had sons there before moving to Constantinople. He was invited back to Gaul, landed at Marseille and was welcomed by Bishop Theodore. He was declared king at Brives-la-Gaillarde in Dec 584, but was betrayed and captured at Comminges by Gontran King of Burgundy, who murdered him.] m (in Italy) ---. The name of Gundobald´s wife is not known. Gundobald & his wife had two children:
      a) two sons. Gregory of Tours records that the two sons of Chramn were born in Italy, and they were taken to Byzantium by their father after the death of their mother.”


      “He inherited the kingdom of Soissons from his father in 511. King of Franks in Soissons, Neustria, Frankish Kingdoms, between 27 November 511 and 558. He acquired Orléans from his brother recently killed in battle against the Burgundians on 25 June 524. King of Franks in Orléans, Frankish Kingdoms, between 25 June 524 and 558. He defeated the Thuringians and took Radegund back to Francia as booty where he married her circa 531. He killed, with his brother Childebert, his nephews, Gunthar and Theodebald, sons of Chlodomer, in 531. He and Childebertus I, rex Francorum, vir inluster engaged in their own civil war, bringing into it their nephew Theodebert before 545 in the forest of Brotonne, Normandy, France. A prayer by theiir mother, St. Chlothild, at the tomb of St. Martin, and besought with tears all night not to permit another fratricide. "Suddenly a frightful tempest arose and dispersed the two armies (that of Chlotaire's pursued by Childebert and Theodebert'ss) which were about to engage in a hand-to-hand struggle; thus, says the chronicler, did the saint answer the prayers of the afflicted mother." He inherited the kingdom of Austrasia from his childless grandnephew, Théobald, in 553. King of Franks in Austrasia, Frankish Kingdoms, between 553 and 558. He acquired the kingdoms of Burgundy and Paris from his brother Childebert in 558.”««s60»», ««s87»» [1, 2]
    Person ID I10778  Lowell&Block
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 

    Father Clovis I (Chlodovech), King of the Franks,   b. 464/67, Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 27 Nov 511, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 44 years) 
    Mother St. Chrotechildis, Princess of Burgundy,   b. 465, Burgundy, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 Jun 548, Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 83 years) 
    Family ID F3792  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Radegund, of Thuringia 
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 
    Family ID F4741  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Ingundis 
    Children 
     1. Gunthar
     2. Childerich,   d. Bef 561
     3. Charibert, King of the Franks,   b. Abt 520,   d. 567, Paris, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 47 years)
     4. Gontran or Guntchramn, King of the Franks
     5. Sigebert I, King of the Franks
     6. Chlodesindis,   d. Bef 567
    +7. Bilichildis or Blithildes,   b. Abt 538,   d. Abt 603  (Age ~ 65 years)
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 
    Family ID F4742  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Arnegundis 
    Children 
     1. Chilperich I, King of the Franks
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 
    Family ID F4743  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 4 Guntheuca or Gondioque 
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 
    Family ID F4739  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 5 Waldrada (Walderade, Vuldetrade),   b. 540,   d. France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 18 Apr 2019 
    Family ID F3770  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 497 - Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 23 Nov 561 - Compiegne, Oise, Picardy, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Sources 
    1. [S60] A Family Tree: Ancestors and Relations of Alexis William Casimir., Casimir, Bernard.

    2. [S87] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy., Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Trustees.